Technologies and equipment of chains production
Any production starts from material cutting. Workpiece cutting is performed on modern German equipment by such famous companies as Kasto and Schubert. Workpieces can be made in two ways:
- stack cutting on band saws;
- workpiece cutting on hydraulic presses with reduced deformation of the workpiece during cutting process.
Band saws are used when it is necessary to get a workpiece with high-quality end surfaces, as well as minimize their misalignments. Stack cutting reduces risk of material damage. With this method, band saw performs main cutting operations automatically. Electronic positioning systems for workpieces are characterized by a complicated operational scheme, which does not allow even minimal errors (up to 0.2 mm per 100 mm diameter).
Workpiece cutoff parameters for metal with diameter 65 mm:
- max. ovality (diameter deformation) is 0,5 mm
- max. end distortion is 0.2 mm
- max. deformation length is 6 mm.
Workpieces machining on universal metal cutting equipment as well as on vertical milling centers and turning-milling centers with CNC.
Machining is carried out on universal milling, turning, grinding and drilling machines, which makes it possible to produce a wide range of products with different requirements for surfaces quality and precision.
Turn-mill machining center TNA400 (made in Germany) allows turning rotary parts with complex configuration and also high precision milling group to obtain high surface quality.
Moreover, the company uses modern machining centers Cincinnati CFV1050 and CFV800 (Germany) and Micron VCE 800 Pro and VCP 1000 Duro (Switzerland), which allow accurate finishing of parts with complex configuration.
2. Welding engineering
Welding of chains is made by two methods: flash welding and resistance welding. The choice of method depends on the chain grade:
- from 6 mm to 20 mm - resistance welding;
- from 18 mm and above - flash welding with preheating.
Only welding equipment from well reputed world-known companies is used for chain production, such as: ESAB, Wafios, IDEAL-Werk, Vitari.
It is a kind of contact welding where parts are joined under pressure before heating; the pressure is maintained at the same level, and then electric current passes to heat the parts until the temperature reaches the point where the metal upsets.
Our equipment allows high quality preparation of workpiece edges before welding, which is important for the subject method, therefore chances of poor fusion and other defects decrease. In addition, welding equipment is fully automated and has electronic control with a wide range of welding regimes. It provides optimal settings to get required quality of manufactured chains.
Flash welding with preheating
It is a process of electrical contact welding where, just before metal melting, the ends of a workpiece are heated in several strokes of a movable carriage. Preheating allows equal heat distribution throughout the whole workpiece cross-section, which reduces time of flash-welding interval. Within this interval the ends are heated to the deep. Movable clamp feed with progressive acceleration provides high current density when the metal melts. This eliminates unevenness of ends surfaces of welded workpieces as this way they are cleaned from dirt. The workpiece cross-section is fully heated on a localized spot in a longitudinal direction. The final stage of welding process is upsetting when the workpieces are upset under high pressure to produce a clean welded joint. The current is switched off automatically. Due to precise control of upsetting force, the excellent joint quality is obtained.
The main advantages of flash contact welding technology are:
- excellent quality of welding guaranteeing that welded joint metal structure is even and similar to the base metal structure;
- welded joint metal strength is more than 90% of the base metal;
- low requirements for quality of end preparation;
- high repeatability of welding parameters, which is achieved by means of electronic control units.
Our equipment provides high quality welding and removal of flash (burr) formed during welding.
All the equipment has a high level of mechanization and processes automation, which means the minimum degree of involvement of welding lines operators for adjustment of parameters and welding process and devote more time to the quality of products.
3. Heat treatment of metals
The company has a wide range of equipment of such brands as Nakal and ITG capable of performing any kind of heat treatment. Heat treatment of chains is made in furnaces: batch-, high-furnaces capable of creating protective atmosphere, induction furnaces.
In ITG continuous induction furnaces, in addition to usual heat treatment, there is an optional possibility of carrying out heat treatment to obtain different hardness between the hinge part of links and its straight sections. As a result, the hinge part of chains get improved abrasion resistance during operation, and strength characteristics of the rest part of chains do not worsen.
As a result of heat treatment in a protective atmosphere, the product obtains high resistance to abrasion thanks to cementation, nitriding or nitrocarburization of products.
4. Hot die forging
Hot die forging with steam hammers is the main way of manufacture of components for chain products at Red Anchor Factory JSC. This method guarantees high accuracy, high-quality surface and good mechanical characteristics with minimum machining, which positively affects the price of finished products. In addition, punching on steam hammers is highly productive – together with our own production of die equipment, it allows us to produce large batches of products in a short time and, if necessary, to change parts design promptly.
Machinery fleet of the forge and press shop include up-to-date equipment, such as: several steam hammers with capacity from 25 to 80 kJ; three horizontal forging machines with a function of rolled steel upsetting (diameter from 15 to 80 mm); open forging hammer, used for preparation of heavy forgings; high-performance devices for HFC heating; chamber gas furnaces for heating of complex shape workpieces. All this allows us to handle a wide range of tasks to get high-quality finished products. Machining of forgings in the workshop is carried out with CNC drilling, turning, screw-cutting, horizontal and vertical milling machines.
5. Mechanical cleaning of metal surfaces
Descaling of the manufactured products surface is performed by shot blasting. This method of treatment not only completely cleans metal of rust and scale, but also allows additional hardening of the surface. Since overlapping dimples emerging after this treatment form a homogenous layer on the metal surface with compressive stresses, shot blasting significantly increases the durability of the parts.
6. Steel parts galvanization
The factory performs galvanization of any complex parts. Plating shop can produce zinc coating for parts with max. dimensions of 300 x 300 mm.
7. Testing equipment
Complex control system and automation of all production processes guarantee consistent quality of our products.
All our products undergo complex control at every stage of the life cycle: from workpiece to finished products.
The independent laboratory performs a comprehensive analysis at all stages of production: control of raw materials, technological processes and parameters of finished products. Testing includes simulation of all possible effects on the material.
The range of works of the central factory laboratory includes:
• non-destructive control by capillary and ultrasonic methods;
• testing of physical and mechanical properties of metals and welded joints for strength, elongation, narrowing, bending, impact resilience;
• products testing with length of up to 27 meters for strength (testing of products with a crushing load from 50 kg to 500 tons, testing for cyclic strength, bending, etc.);
•chemical-spectral analysis of metals;
• metallographic analysis (macro- and microanalysis, inter-crystalline corrosion test, microhardness, etc.).
Only products that have passed strict quality control are approved for delivery to the customers. The decision to release products is made by an authorized person only when they do not have any objections regarding production process and the quality of finished products.
All products are certified and manufactured in accordance with the requirements of regulatory and technical documentation